The Norton Anthology of English Literature

Sixth Edition

General Editor, M. H. Abrams

New York: W. W. Norton, 1993

Volume II.




The Romantic Period (1785-1830)

William Blake (1757-1827)

To Spring
To Autumn
To the Evening Star
Song ("How sweet I roam'd from field to field")
Song ("Memory, hither come")
Mad Song
To the Muses

All Religions are One
There Is No Natural Religion [a]
There Is No Natural Religions [b]

From Songs of Innocence
The Ecchoing Green
The Lamb
The Little Black Boy
The Chimney Sweeper
The Divine Image
Holy Thursday
Nurse's Song
Infant Joy
From Songs of Experience
Earth's Answer
The Clod & the Pebble
Holy Thursday
The Chimney Sweeper
Nurse's Song
The Sick Rose
The Fly
The Tyger
My Pretty Rose Tree
Ah Sun-flower
The Garden of Love
The Human Abstract
Infant Sorrow
A Poison Tree
To Tirzah
A Divine Image

Robert Burns (1759-1796)

To a Mouse
To a Louse
Green frow the rashes
Holy Willie's Prayer
Tam o' Shanter
Afton Water
Ae fond kiss
Ye flowery banks
Scots, wha hae
For A' That and A' That
A Red, Red Rose
Auld Lang Syne

Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797)

A Vindiction of the Rights of Woman
Chap. 2. The Prevailing Opinion of a Sexual Character Discussed
From Chp. 4. Observations on the State of Degradation to Which Woman is Reduced by Various Causes

William Wordsworth (1770-1850)

Simon Lee
We Are Seven
Lines Written in Early Spring
Expostulation and Reply
The Tables Turned
Lines Composed a Few Miles above Tintern Abbey

Preface to Lyrical Ballads (1802)
[The Subject and Language of Poetry]
["What Is a Poet?"]
["Emotion Recollected in Tranquillity"]
Strange fits of passion have I known
She dwelt among the untrodden ways
Three years she grew
A slumber did my spirit seal
I travelled among unknown men
Lucy Gray
The Two April Mornings
The Ruined Cottage
Written in March
Resolution and Independence
I wandered lonely as a cloud
My heart leaps up
Ode: Intimations of Immortality
Ode to Duty
The Solitary Reaper
Elegiac Stanzas

Composed upon Westminster Bridge, September 3, 1802
It is a beauteous evening
London, 1802
The world is too much with us
Surprised by joy
Steamboats, Viaducts, and Railways

Extempore Effusion upon the Death of James Hogg
Prospectus to The Recluse

Book First, Introduction, Childhood, and School-time
Book Second, School-time continued
Book Third. Residence at Cambridge
[Experiences at St. John's College. The "Heroic Argument"]
Book Fourth. Summer Vacation
[The Walks with His Terrier. The Circuit of the Lake]
["The Surface of Past Time." The Walk Home from the Dance. The Discharged Soldier]
Book Fifth. Books
[The Dream of the Arab]
[The Boy of Winander]
["The Mystery of Words"]
Book Sixth. Cambridge, and the Alps
["Human Nature Seeming Born Again"]
[Crossing Simplon Pass]
Book Seventh. Residence in London
[The Blind Beggar. Bartholomew Fair]
Book Eighth. Retrospect, Love of Nature leading to Love of Man
[The Shepherd in the Mist. Man Still Subordinate to Nature]
Book Ninth. Residence in France
[Paris and Orleans. Becomes a "Patriot"]
Book Tenth. France continued
[The Revolution: Paris and England]
[The Reign of Terror. Nightmares]
Book Eleventh. France, concluded
[Retrospect: "Bliss Was It in That Dawn." Recourse to "Reason's Naked Self"]
[Crisis, Breakdown, and Recovery]
Book Twelfth. Imagination and Taste, how impaired and restored
Book Thirteenth. Subject concluded
[Return to "Life's Familiar Face"]
[Discovery of His Poetic Subject. Salisbury Plain. Sight of "a New World"]
Book Fourteenth. Conclusion
[The Vision on Mount Snowdon. Fear vs. Love Resolved. Imagination]
[Conclusion: "The Mind of Man"]

Dorothy Wordsworth (1771-1855)

From The Alfoxden Journal
From The Grasmere Journals

Sir Walter Scott (1771-1832)

The Two Drovers
Jock of Hazeldean
The Dreary Change
Proud Maisie
Lucy Ashton's Song

Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772-1834)

The Eolian Harp
This Lime-Tree Bower My Prison
The Rime of the Ancient Mariner
Kubla Khan
Frost at Midnight
Dejection: An Ode
The Pains of Sleep
To William Wordsworth
Recollections of Love
On Donne's Poetry
Work without Hope
Constancy to an Ideal Object
Biographia Literaria
Chapter 1
[The discipline of his taste at school]
[Bowle's sonnets]
[Comparison between the poets before and since Mr. Pope]
Chapter 4
[Mr. Wordsworth's earlier poems]
[On fancy and imagination -- the investigation of the distinction important to the fine arts]
Chapter 13
[On the imagination, or esemplastic power]
Chapter 14. Occasion of the Lyrical Ballads, and the objects originally proposed -- preface to the second edition -- the ensuing controversy, its causes and acrimony -- philosophic definitions of a term and poetry with scholia
Chapter 17
[Examination of the tenets peculiar to Mr. Wordsworth]
[Rustic life (above all, low and rustic life) especially unfavorable to the formation of a human diction -- the best parts of language the products of philosophers, not clowns or shepherds]
[The language of Milton as much the language of real life, yea, incomparably more so that that of the cottager]
Lectures on Shakespeare
[Fancy and Imagination in Shakespeare's Poetry]
[Mechanic vs. Organic Form]
The Statesman's Manual
[On Symbol and Allegory]
[The Satanic Hero]

Charles Lamb (1775-1834)

A Letter to Wordsworth
Christ's Hospital Five-and-Thirty Years Ago
The Two Races of Men
Old China

William Hazlitt (1778-1830)

On Gusto
My First Acquaintance with Poets
From Mr. Wordsworth

Thomas De Quincey (1758-1859)

Confessions of an English Opium-Eater
Preliminary Confessions
[The Prostitute Ann]
Introduction to the Pains of Opium
[The Malay]
The Pains of Opium
[Opium Reveries and Dreams]
On the Knocking at the Gate in Macbeth
Alexander Pope
[The Literature of Knowledge and the Literature of Power]

Thomas Love Peacock (1785-1866)

The Four Ages of Poetry
The War Song of Dinas Vawr

George Gordon, Lord Byron (1788-1824)

Written after Swimming from Sestos to Abydos
She walks in beauty
They say that Hope is happiness
When we two parted
Stanzas for Music
So, we'll go no more a roving
When a man hath no freedom to fight for at home
Stanzas Written on the Road between Florence and Pisa
January 22nd. Missolonghi
Canto I
["Sin's Long Labyrinth"]
Canto 3
["Once More Upon the Waters"]
Canto 4
The Vision of Judgment
Canto I
[Juan and Donna Julia]
Canto 2
[The Shipwreck]
[Juan and Haidee]
Canto 3
[Juan and Haidee]
Canto 4
[Juan and Haidee]
Memorandum (May 22, 1811)
To Francis Hodgson (Sept. 3, 1811)
To James Hogg (Mar. 24, 1814)
To Leigh Hunt (Sept - Oct 30, 1815)
To Thomas Moore (Jan. 28, 1817)
To John Murray (Sept. 15, 1817)
To John Cam Hobhouse and Douglas Kinnaird (Jan. 19, 1819)
To John Murray (Apr. 6, 1819)
To Douglas Kinnaird (Oct. 26, 1819)
To Percy Bysshe Shelley (Apr. 26, 1821)

Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792-1822)

To Wordsworth
Alastor; or, The Spirit of Solitude
Mont Blanc
Hymn to Intellectual Beauty
Stanzas Written in Dejection -- December 1818, near Naples
A Song: "Men of England"
England in 1819
To Sidmouth and Castlereagh
The Indian Girl's Song [The Indian Serenade]
Ode to the West Wind
Prometheus Unbound
From Act I
Act 2
Scene 4
Scene 5
Act 3
Scene I
From Scene 4
From Act 4
The Cloud
To a Sky-Lark
Song of Apollo
To Night
To -- [Music, when soft voices die]
The flower that smiles today
O World, O Life, O Time
Choruses from Hellas
Worlds on worlds
The world's great age
A Dirge
When the lamp is shattered
To Jane. The Invitation
To Jane (The keen stars were twinkling)
Lines Written in the Bay of Lerici
The Triumph of Life
From A Defence of Poetry

John Keats (1795-1821)

On First Looking into Chapman's Homer
Sleep and Poetry
["O for Ten Years"]
On Seeing the Elgin Marbles
Endymion: A Poetic Romance
Book I
[A Thing of Beauty]
[The "Pleasure Thermometer"]
On Sitting Down to Read King Lear Once Again
When I have fears that I may cease to be
To Homer
The Eve of St. Agnes
Why did I laugh tonight? No voice will tell
Bright star, would I were stedfast as thou art
La Belle Dame sans Merci: A Ballad
Sonnet to Sleep
Ode to Psyche
Ode to a Nightingale
Ode on a Grecian Urn
Ode on Melancholy
Ode on Indolence
To Autumn
The Fall of Hyperion: A Dream

To Benjamin Bailey (Nov. 22, 1817)
To George and Thomas Keats (Dec. 21, 27 [?], 1817)
To John Hamilton Reynolds (Feb. 3, 1818)
To John Taylor (Feb. 27, 1818)
To John Hamilton Reynolds (May 3, 1818)
To Richard Woodhouse (Oct. 27, 1818)
To George and Georgiana Keats (Feb. 14-May 3, 1819)
To Fanny Brawne (July 25, 1819)
To Percy Bysshe Shelley (Aug. 16, 1820)
To Charles Brown (Nov. 30, 1820)

Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (1797-1851)

Introduction to Frankenstein

Romantic Lyric Poets

Anna Laetitia Barbauld (1743-1825)

The Rights of Woman
To a Little Invisible Being Who Is Expected Soon to Become Visible

Charlotte Smith (1749-1806)

Written at the Close of Spring
To Sleep
To Night

William Lisle Bowles (1762-1850)

To the River Itchin, near Winton
Languid, and sad, and slow

Joanna Baillie (1762-1851)

Up! quit thy bower
Song: Woo'd and married and a'

Walter Savage Landor (1775-1864)

Mother, I cannot mind my wheel
Rose Aylmer
The Three Roses
Past ruined Ilion
Twenty years hence
Well I remember how you smiled

Thomas Moore (1779-1852)

Believe me, if all those endearing young charms
The harp that once through Tara's halls
The time I've lost in wooing

John Clare (1793-1864)

Mouse's Nest
I Am
Clock a Clay

Felicia Dorothea Hemans (1793-1835)

England's Dead
The Landing of the Pilgrim Fathers in New England

George Darley (1795-1846)

The Phoenix
It is not Beauty I demand
The Mermaidens' Vesper Hymn

Thomas Lovell Beddoes (1803-1849)

Song ("How many times do I love thee, dear?")
Song ("Old Adam, the carrion crow")
The Phantom Wooer

The Victorian Age (1830-1901)

. . .

Preface to the Sixth Edition

This anthology is designed for the indispensable courses that introduce students to the unparalleled excellence and variety of English literature. Its criteria remain those announced in the original edition:

  1. that the works selected make possible a study in depth of the achievements by the major writers in prose and verse, in the context of the chief literary types and traditions of each age;
  2. that these works be so far as feasible complete, and also abundant enough to allow instructors to choose from the total those that each one prefers to teach;
  3. that the student be provided the most reliable texts available, edited so as to expedite understanding, in a format inviting to the eye;
  4. that introductions, glosses, and other informative materials be adequate to free the student from dependence on reference books, so that the anthology may be read anywhere--in the student's room, in a coffee lounge, on a bus, or under a tree;
  5. that each editor, while subject to agreed-upon guidelines, be allowed to keep his or her distinctive voice;
  6. that each volume, in size and weight, be comfortably portable, for if students won't carry the book to class, lectures are lamed and discussions made profitless.

A vital literary culture, however, is always on the move. Our policy has therefore been to provide periodic revisions that will take advantage of newly recovered or better-edited texts, stay in touch with scholarly discoveries and the altering interests of readers, and keep the anthology within the mainstream of contemporary critical and intellectual concerns. In preparing this sixth edition, we continue to benefit from the steady flow of voluntary corrections and suggestions proposed by students, as well as teachers, who view the anthology with a loyal but critical eye. And we have again solicited and received detailed information on the works actually assigned, proposals for deletions and additions, and suggestions for improving the editorial matter, from over 150 reviewers from around the world, almost all of them teachers who use the book in a course. In its evolution, then, The Norton Anthology of English Literature has been the product of an ongoing collaboration among its editors, teachers, and students. it is sometimes claimed that the editors of the anthology simply reproduce, or even help establish, the traditional "canon" of English literature. The facts are, however, that the writers and works in this collection have been selected, and then winnowed, by a running consensus of its users, and that the continuing desirability of these texts is attested by the number of teachers who choose to assign them, year after year, to their students.

This anthology had it genesis in a course that was devised and taught at Cornell University by two of its editors, M. H. Abrams and David Daiches. One of its continuing strengths is that both the first generation of editors and the younger group that was added while the fifth edition was being prepared have had long experience in teaching introductory courses in English literature. Each revised edition therefore benefits from the editors' familiarity with works that stand the test of classroom use. For the present edition, we have reconsidered and revised all the earlier introductions and notes, and totally rewritten some of them. Some texts, which our canvass of teachers showed to be assigned infrequently or not at all, have been replaced by others more in demand.

A cardinal innovation in this sixth edition is the use of a larger trim size that make for a more readable page and allows the volume, even in the middle section, [xxxv / xxxvi] and stay flat. Another advantage of this altered format is that it makes possible a number of added texts, without requiring more pages or affecting the portability of each volume. Some of these additions are in response to changing interests of teachers. For example, we have continued to increase the number of women writers, as well as to enlarge the selections by some of the women included in earlier editions. There are now forty female authors represented in the two volumes. Texts that have been added include Aphra Behn's Oroonoko and Virginia Woolf's A Room of One's Own, both in their entirety. Also, the inclusion of works by Nadine Gordimer, the South African writer of prose fiction, and Fleur Adcock, the New Zealand poet, extends the geographical reach of the anthology, so that with this edition it reflects even more the international nature of literature in English.

Another type of added material consists of writings especially useful for teachers who present literary texts in their intellectual, political, and cultural contexts; this type includes a selection from Sir Walter Raleigh's Discovery of the large, rich, and beautiful Empire of Guiana and Thomas Hariot's observations about the native Americans in his Brief and True Report of the Newfound Land of Virginia; Francis Bacon's Of Plantations; pungent pieces from radical pamphleteers of the seventeenth-century Commonwealth, Gerard Winstanley and Abiezer Coppe; and writings by Coventry Patmore and Harriet Martineau in the Victorian section "The Woman Question."

It should be stressed that the expanded range of concerns and the diversity of critical viewpoints that such innovations make possible have not been achieved by cutting the space consigned to the more traditional authors. In fact, the new format has made it possible to make substantial additions to some of these authors, including Spenser, Shakespeare, Jonson, Scott, and Byron.

The anthology fully represents English poetry in its major writers, forms, and genres. it also includes enough plays to provide a comprehensive overview of the evolution of English drama. There are twelve plays in volume 1, ranging from three medieval dramas to Congreve's Way of the World; notable among them is Shakespeare's King Lear, restored in the sixth edition in response to widespread demand. There are seven plays in volume 2, ranging from Byron's closet drama Manfred to contemporary works by Beckett, Pinter, and Stoppard. The greatest challenge, of course, with the space available in a general anthology, is to represent adequately the genre of prose fiction. Our solution has been to make available texts that show the development of narrative techniques and style, from Sidney's Arcadia and Lyly's Euphues through Swift's Gulliver's Travels and Johnson's Rasselas to Joyce's Ulysses and Finnegans Wake, and to include also a great number and variety of complete short works of prose fiction from Mary Shelley on, as well as such longer works as Conrad's Heart of Darkness and Joyce's The Dead. To all these texts the altered format has now made it possible to add Sir Walter Scott's remarkable tale The Two Drovers, as well as short stories by Katherine Mansfield and Nadine Gordimer and a largely self-contained section from book I of George Eliot's The Mill on the Floss.

With this sixth edition, we also inaugurate a set of volumes, the Norton Anthology Editions, that make it possible to obtain inexpensively the full-length novels most in demand as supplements to volume 2 of the anthology. Our questionnaires showed these novels to be Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice, Emily Bronte's Wuthering Heights, Charlotte Bronte's Jane Eyre, and Charles Dickens' Hard Times. Each Norton Anthology Edition includes the text, footnotes, and bibliography of the Norton Critical Edition of the novel, together with a short introduction by an editor of The Norton Anthology of English Literature, and is designed to match the anthology proper. Information for ordering the Norton Anthology Editions may be obtained from the publisher.

It may be helpful to teachers familiar with previous editions of this anthology to list the texts that have been added to the present edition. . . . .

. . . .

The Restoration and the Eighteenth Century. The principal addition is the entire text, especially edited for the anthology by Joanna Lipking, of Oroonoko, written by Aphra Behn, the first professional woman of letters, and remarkable for its early representation of a plantation in the new sugar colony of Surinam and for its choice, as its larger-than-life tragic hero, of a black male slave. In the texts of this period, the section from Samuel Johnson's Preface to Shakespeare on King Lear has been added to the earlier section on Henry IV, so that we have Johnson's comments on both the Shakespeare plays in the anthology.

The Romantic Period. A major addition is nine of Lord Byron's incomparable letters and one significant journal entry; also, that poet's On this day I complete my thirty sixth year has been added to his poems. The selections from Sir Walter Scott have been enlarged by his fine short story The Two Drovers, as well as by two new poems. To the section "Romantic Lyric Poets" have been added Anna Laetitia Barbauld, Charlotte Smith, William Lisle Bowles, Joanna Baillie, and Felicia Dorothea Hemans.

. . . .

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